9. Speech Synthesis#
Speech synthesis systems aim at producing intelligible speech signals from some type of input language representation. Synthesis systems are also often referred to as text-to-speech (TTS) systems, as written text is a natural way to instruct what type of utterances should be produced.
A typical TTS system consists of two basic processing modules: text analysis module and a speech synthesis module.
The first module of a TTS pipeline, the text analysis module, is responsible for converting the incoming text into a linguistic representation that encodes the information of how the input text should be spoken.
As the first step, the module must process the text into a standardized format by taking care of any special characters or other inconsistencies. Then the text must be structurally analyzed to identify syntactical components of the sentences. Any inconsistencies between the written and spoken language (e.g., abbreviations and acronyms, proper names, numbers) must be detected and converted into a correct format (e.g., to map the string “100 sq ft” into “one hundred square feet”, not “one-zero-zero sq ft”) .
The second step consists of inferring the correct pronunciation of the words, also known as grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. Since the relationship between written and spoken language is not always straightforward, the text analysis module must convert strings of input letters into strings of phonemes based on the pronunciation conventions of the given language. This involves resolving many ambiguities prevalent in languages, such as how to deal with homographs, that is, words with the same written form but different pronunciations. Foreign language words and loan words have to be handled as well.
As the final stage, suprasegmental characteristics of the speech-to-be-produced must be introduced to the linguistic representation. Durations of the phonemes and intermediate pauses must be defined, even though the information does not exist in the text. In order to make the speech natural sounding and intelligible, the process also includes introduction of any potential rhythmic structure, stress patterns, and intonational cues to the linguistic representation. For this purpose, the text analysis module must interpret syntactic properties of the input text. For instance, the system must be able to differentiate different sentence types such as questions from statements and to infer which word should receive focus in the given sentential context.
The second key module consists of the speech synthesizer module. Input to the synthesizer is the linguistic representation produced by the text analysis block while the output consists of acoustic waveforms of synthesized speech. There are several potential technical approaches to the creation of a speech waveform from linguistic instructions. Historically, methods such as formant synthesis or articulatory synthesis have been utilized (where the latter is still used in speech research). However, modern commercial speech synthesizers are based on one of the two alternative techniques: concatenative synthesis or statistical parametric speech synthesis. Both methods are described in more detail in their respective sub-sections.
Figure 1: The basic structure of a speech synthesis system.**
In general, synthesis algorithms aim at speech output that maximally resembles natural speech, is free of noise and artifacts, and has high intelligibility. Other characteristics may include possibility to use different speaker voices or to speaking styles to account for different use contexts and user preferences. In practical use, computational complexity of the system may also become a relevant design factor. This is especially true if the system must support real-time speech production and/or serve multiple users simultaneously. For instance, speech synthesis used on a standard mobile device or in a car entertainment system must operate with strict latency computational complexity constraints.
Speech quality and intelligibility a speech synthesizer are typically evaluated using subjective listening tests.
Further readings & material
Simon King - Using Speech Synthesis to give Everyone their own Voice, University of Edinburgh. Youtube video (link). Includes an overview of unit selection and statistical parametric synthesis with sound demonstrations.
Kim Silverman - Speech synthesis lecture at ICSI, Berkeley. Youtube video (link).
Sai Krishna Rallabandi’s on-line list of introductory resources for speech synthesis (link)